ICTCT is an association developed out of an international working group of safety experts with the aim to identify and analyse dangerous situations in road traffic on the basis of criteria other than past accidents, analogous to the methods of air and industrial safety.
International cooperation in the identification and analysis of potentially dangerous situations in road traffic and their causes, on the basis of relevant safety data derived from observations and surveys.
The aim of ICTCT is to achieve a deeper understanding of problems in the area, to harmonise future research activities, and to provide for means for an optimal utilisation of research results from different countries.
To fulfil these aims ICTCT has been involved in a number of cooperative research efforts (workshops, calibration studies, formulation of international guidelines, clearing house for reports, etc.).
“WE DON’T NEED ACCIDENTS IN ORDER TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS!”
because we are aware of “Danger indicators”
Danger indicators are, for example, traffic conflicts and near-accidents, as well as the behaviour and interaction patterns in which they are rooted to improve knowledge about these events and behaviour patterns, which in the long run lead to accidents, is to be collocated within the ICTCT’s sphere of activities.
ICTCTwas born in the 1970s from a desire of co-operation of researchers interested first in pedestrian safety, then in developing traffic conflict techniques as a complement to injury accident data for research, diagnosis and evaluation purposes. From the start, this co-operation was multidisciplinary.
Observation of “conflicts” or “near-accidents” was first applied to road traffic in the USA in the 60’s and the approach was imported in Europe in the early 70s, first by a team from TRRL in UK and then by a team from Lund University in Sweden. From then on, other teams got interested in Germany, Norway, France, Canada, then Finland, the Netherlands, Austria, Israel, etc. Co-operation rapidly became intense between the teams. In 1977, a meeting was held in Oslo, Norway, where an agreement was reached on a common definition of the concept of “traffic conflict”. ICTCT(at that time: International Co-operation in Traffic Conflict Techniques) was officially created that year, still as an informal association. In 1979, a first International Calibration Study was organized in Rouen, France, where five teams from France, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden and the USA compared their operational definitions and data collection procedures in details.
ICTCTorganized two more international Joint Calibration Studies of Traffic Conflict Techniques: in Lund, Sweden in 1983 and in Austria in 1985, involving ten different teams. Meanwhile, statistical methodologies were developed in Toronto and Lund Universities to validate traffic conflicts as accident surrogates. Several doctor’s theses have been published on the concept of traffic conflicts, on new traffic conflict techniques, on the validation of traffic conflict techniques, the continuum of traffic events with regard to their severity, and on usability of the conflict technique in developing countries.
By the end of the 80s, traffic conflict techniques were commonly used by researchers and became an operational tool for some practitioners (the Police in Germany, the National Road Administration in Sweden, local authorities in France, etc.).
Following these achievements, the focus of ICTCTwidened to theories and concepts enabling researchers and practitioners to work on road safety without having to rely solely on scarce or insufficient accident and injury data. ICTCTassociation (from that time: International Co-operation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety) was formally created under Austrian law in 1988, with the aim to facilitate multidisciplinary exchange, discussion and co-operation at the international level between researchers sharing the same views. Since then, ICTCThas organized annual thematic workshops and produced their proceedings, and has particularly endeavored to bridge the communication gap between Western researchers and Central and Eastern European ones by holding the workshops in a large variety of countries in these regions. More recently, ICTCTalso started organizing extra workshops in non-European countries such as India, Japan, Canada, and Brasil.